Precarious Work as Risk Factor for 5-Year Increase in Depressive Symptoms
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OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between precarious work and depressive symptoms in a representative cohort of employees in Germany.
METHODS: In the German Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) ( n = 2009), depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Precarious work was measured through baseline (2012) self-reported job insecurity, marginal part-time, fixed-term contract, hourly wage and-during follow-ups 2012-2017-unemployment. Among employees without depressive symptoms at baseline (2012), we ran logistic regression analyses stratified by gender with depressive symptoms at follow-up in 2017 as the dependent variable, adjusting for baseline (2012) age, gender, socioeconomic position and partner status.
RESULTS: Among men, job insecurity (OR: 2.47; 95% 95% CI: 1.37-4.48) and low wage (3.79; 1.64-8.72) at baseline were significantly associated with depressive symptoms at follow-up. Among women, indicators of precarious work were not associated with depressive symptoms at follow-up. Among men, a cumulative exposure index of precarious work was significantly associated with the development of depressive symptoms (one indicator: 1.84; 0.94-3.60, ≥two indicators: 7.65; 3.30-17.73). This index was not associated with depressive symptoms among women. The population attributable fraction of precarious work due to depressive symptoms among men was approximately 30%.
CONCLUSIONS: Among employees in Germany, precarious work seems to be a risk factor for the subsequent development of depressive symptoms among men, but not among women. Research on precarious employment in different countries is needed.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 8 Mar 2022|
- Depression/epidemiology, Employment/psychology, Female, Germany/epidemiology, Humans, Male, Risk Factors, Unemployment